Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs (NEA) / U.S. Embassy in Jordan Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO)

Funding Opportunity Title: Entrepreneurial Approaches to Countering Disinformation & Misinformation (Hakkerha!)

Funding Opportunity Number:  PAS-JOR-FY21-004

Deadline for Applications: August 10, 2021

Assistance Listing Number:  19.415

Total Amount Available:  Up to $120,000


The U.S. Embassy in Jordan / Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs (NEA) of the U.S. Department of State announces an open competition for organizations to submit applications to develop and implement the “TechCamp Jordan (Hakkerha): Entrepreneurial Approaches to Countering Disinformation & Misinformation” program in September 2021.  Specific goals, objectives, and technical requirements for application packages are detailed below.  The Public Affairs Section in Amman anticipates awarding up to $120,000 under this funding opportunity for a 12-month period of performance, with possible extension for up to three (3) additional months for continuing engagement programming.  The Public Affairs Section  will evaluate applications on a competitive basis using the evaluation criteria explained below, and will provide funding for the proposal found most likely to achieve the goals and objectives within the stated monetary and time parameters.  Please follow all instructions below.

Priority Region:  Jordan

Program Objectives: 

Since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, we have transitioned nearly every aspect of our lives online.  While this shift in engagement from offline to online has created new opportunities and connections, it has also exposed economic inequities and the corrosive effects of misinformation, disinformation, fake news, and propaganda on societies, large and small.  The Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated the negative effects of social media around the world, contributing to ever-increasing social tensions, and a deepening of the socio-economic divide.

In Jordan, nearly 70% of the country’s population is under the age of 30.    Young Jordanians face many challenges, chief amongst them unemployment, and adding a global pandemic into the mix has not made things easier.  When the majority of the population was on lockdown, Jordanians young and old turned in greater numbers to online news reports and media outlets for updates on the crisis.  Malign actors have sought to exploit educational, economic, and political challenges through the use of disinformation, misinformation, propaganda, and fake news.

To confront these digital challenges, traditional tools have been developed through media and information literacy programs (MIL) to increase knowledge and awareness about manipulations carried out through digital channels and platforms, while other projects have sought to create alternative, transformative, and counter narratives to combat fake news.

However, disinformation, misinformation, and propaganda campaigns have rattled the digital landscape, exposing the shortcomings of traditional approaches in addressing these issues. Consequently, and given the nature and the pace of how false news spreads and gets exploited and manipulated by malign actors, the need to adopt a whole-of-society approach to create tangible and scalable solutions to address this threat has never been more pressing.

Jordan’s youth are highly educated and connected, but due to the pandemic, face increased barriers to economic inclusion.  Consequently, and given that Jordan is a fertile environment for fostering non-traditional connections and solutions for the greater good, TechCamp Jordan aims to activate Jordan’s youthful talents through providing an interactive and engaging platform to design and test new technology-based solutions to counter the threats of disinformation and misinformation.  Participants will be given the opportunity to participate in an intensive training program to work with technology enthusiasts, journalists, entrepreneurs, amongst others, to propose as well as develop sustainable economic solutions for local and global communities.  It is expected that solutions developed at the end of the tech camp will be able to address the issues being tackled, as well as have the potential to be developed further to generate revenue, or be acquired by private sector as well as governmental actors as countries continue to look for innovative solutions to address the global threat of disinformation.

Program overview

TechCamp Jordan will bring together youth with proven talents in fields such as coding, statistics, design, journalism, and technology to develop innovative solutions to the challenges of online misinformation, disinformation and propaganda.  Participants will launch real-world entrepreneurial solutions under the guidance of trusted mentors, activists, advisors and officials. Ultimately, TechCamp Jordan will establish a network to incubate new ideas and champion innovative social entrepreneurship in the post-pandemic world within the domain of media and information literacy, with a special focus on countering disinformation.

Program Goals and Desired Policy Impact

The goals must be aligned with the Integrated Country Strategy goals of the U.S. Embassy in Jordan, and the following goals, specific to this program:

  • Establish an innovative and multidisciplinary platform to engage Jordanian youth as the primary problem-solvers;
  • Build politically aware resilience in communities affected by violent extremism through innovative multidisciplinary approaches to problem solving;
  • Elevate Jordanian voices to counter disinformation, misinformation, fake news, and extremism;
  • Promote active, well-informed, politically aware and engaged citizenship through entrepreneurship and private sector engagement.

Program Activities

The 12–15-month program should include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following main activities:

  •  3-day in-person Inaugural TechCamp

The camp should bring together approximately 35 to 40 participants, organized in small groups, who will engage with trainers and mentors from across various professions and disciplines to explore how to identify economic opportunities within a digital landscape of misinformation, disinformation, fake news, and propaganda campaigns.  Furthermore, participants are expected to form nuclear teams to begin working on refining their ideas for the duration of the program.

Following the training bootcamp, participants are expected to pitch their start-up ideas and proposed solutions to a jury of experts, which will include representatives from the U.S. Embassy in Amman, private sector partners, as well as representatives from the Jordanian government.

  • 6-Month Incubation Program with Strategic Partners

The implementer will be responsible for matching the top ideas generated during the inaugural event with strategic local partners.  This is done to ensure that participants continue to work with experts in the field and coordinate with government counterparts to ensure accessibility, relevance, and practicality of their proposed ideas and prototypes.  It is expected that by the end of the incubation period, participants will have refined their prototypes for the ideas generated during the inaugural bootcamp.  In addition to the matchmaking process, it is expected that the implementation will take into account the following elements:

  1. Incorporate a U.S. cultural component to showcase as well as share relevant successful U.S.-based social enterprises or/and public-private partnerships, i.e., connect participants with organizations working to tackle the issues being addressed.
  2. Provide hands-on workshops, mentorship channels, as well as monthly panel discussions with experts in the field from both the U.S. and Jordan on issues pertaining to freedom of expression, hate speech, critical thinking, citizen journalism, access to information, information and communications technology (ICT) and internet security, digital and media literacy, media ownership, among others.
  • Final Pitching Competition and Seed Funding for Winning Prototypes 

At the end of the incubation period, participants will be provided with the opportunity to pitch their ideas to a panel of experts.  Up to five teams will be awarded sub-grants to work on refining their solutions in collaboration with one of the program’s strategic partners.  Award amounts will vary based on availability of budget.

  • Follow on Activities & Post Project Support

Follow-on activities should include establishing a community of practice and/or network to carry forward the ideas and projects that emerged in the tech camp in collaboration with strategic partners from both the private and public sectors as well as relevant civil society organizations.

A Special Note on Covid-19 Restrictions:  Applicants are encouraged to make their proposal flexible to allow for compliance with current and possible future local and international health restrictions in place to limit the spread of Covid-19.  This is especially important for proposing in-person interactions such as meetings, exchanges, workshops, panel discussions and other activities.  Applicants can propose such in-person activities but should include consideration of alternate activities, e.g., webinars, virtual meetings, and others, in the case that the former are prohibited or impractical at the time the program is proposed.

Responsibilities of the Implementing Partner 

In coordination with the U.S. Embassy in Amman, the implementing partner will be responsible for all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of TechCamp Jordan.  Submitted proposals should include programmatic and financial details on the following:

  • Logistics for the program:  The implementing partner will be responsible for devising and implementing the agenda, organizing schedules, acquiring all printed/digital programmatic materials and promotional items, designing recruitment campaigns, arranging expert travel, and all logistics and planning associated with this tech camp, including the travel of participants in coordination with the U.S. Embassy.
  • Selection of participants:  The implementing partner will finalize the criteria of the target audience as proposed in this Funding Notice, as well as establish open-competition recruitment mechanisms and channels, in coordination with the U.S. Embassy.
  • Identification of local tech experts/other local strategic partners:  The implementing partner will identify local tech experts to design and lead any and all training workshops in coordination with U.S. Embassy personnel.
    • Digital engagement and outreach:  The implementing partner will be responsible for developing communication plans that clearly outline the plan for the amplification of the program activities and outcomes both online and offline through robust and innovative digital engagement approaches.
  • Financials:  Applications must cover all and any expenses associated with the program, including, but not limited to: winning teams’ sub-grants, venue(s), experts and participants allowances, printing services and promotional items, internet bundle support, providing simultaneous translation if needed, follow-on program activities’ costs, travel of participants from and to activities, placement fees with strategic partners (if any), and the operational costs and staffing of the implementing partner.
  • Monitoring and evaluation plan:  The implementing partner will be responsible for submitting a detailed monitoring and evaluation plan for all components of the program, including the follow-on program activities.  The follow-on activities (alumni workshops, small grants competitions, ongoing mentorship sessions, etc.) will be coordinated with U.S. Embassy staff.  The implementing partner is expected to brief U.S. Embassy personnel on the qualitative and quantitative progress of program implementation.

Participants and Audiences:

Applications must describe both the primary and secondary audiences for the program, including numbers anticipated to be reached.  Primary audiences are those who will participate directly in the program, while secondary audiences are those who will be reached by the project’s primary audiences, as a result of their participation, or through any follow-on activities build into the primary program.

TechCamp Jordan should focus on developing a diverse mix of participants, from entrepreneurs and technology enthusiasts with an interest in coding and artificial intelligence (AI), to AI experts and developers to journalists, social media influencers, political scientists, academics, and media literacy specialists, all of whom will be aged 18-35, at least 50% women, from across the country.  Special emphasis should be placed on participants residing outside the capital, including underserved communities (refugees, minority groups, etc.) to help raise awareness about the realities of news, information, and economic opportunities.  TechCamp should also engage civil society leaders and government officials to counter disinformation and promote economic development.


Length of performance period: 12-15 months

Number of awards anticipated: 1 award

Total available funding:  Up to $120,000.00

Type of Funding:  FY21 Fulbright-Hays

Anticipated program start date:  September 2021

This notice is subject to availability of funding.

Funding Instrument Type:  The funding instrument type for TechCamp Jordan will be Cooperative Agreement.  This means that the U.S. Embassy in Amman, through its Public Affairs Section, will be actively involved in the program implementation, from the selection of participants, trainers and experts, to reviewing plans, budgets and timelines, attending workshops, sitting on the jury, providing branding and other approvals, among other responsibilities.

Program Performance Period:  Proposed programs should be completed in 15 months or less.


  1. Eligible Applicants
    The following organizations are eligible to apply
  • Registered not-for-profit organizations in both the U.S. and Jordan, including think tanks, civil society, as well as non-governmental organizations.
  1. Cost Sharing or Matching
  • Cost sharing is not required; however, when cost sharing is offered, it is understood and agreed that the applicant must provide the amount of cost sharing as stipulated in its proposal.  The Public Affairs Section encourages, but does not mandate, that applicants include cost-sharing elements from additional sources in support of their proposals.
  1. Other Eligibility Requirements
  • In order to be eligible to receive an award, all organizations must have a unique entity identifier (Data Universal Numbering System/DUNS number from Dun & Bradstreet), as well as a valid registration on www.SAM.gov. Please see Section D.3 for information on how to obtain these registrations.  Individuals are not required to have a unique entity identifier or be registered in SAM.gov.

Applicants are only allowed to submit one proposal per organization. If more than one proposal is submitted from an organization, all proposals from that institution will be considered ineligible for funding.


  1. Address to Request Application Package

Application forms required below are available at https://www.grants.gov/web/grants/forms/forms-repository.html

  1. Content and Form of Application Submission

Please follow all instructions below carefully. Proposals that do not meet the requirements of this announcement or fail to comply with the stated requirements will be ineligible.

Content of Application

Please ensure:

  • The proposal clearly addresses the goals and objectives of this funding opportunity;
  • All documents are in English;
  • All budgets are in U.S. dollars;
  • All pages are numbered;
  • All documents are formatted to 8 ½ x 11 paper, and
  • All Microsoft Word documents are single-spaced, 12 point Times New Roman font, with a minimum of 1-inch margins.

The following documents are required:

  1. Mandatory application forms

 (note: the SF-424B is only required for individuals and for organiations not registered in SAM.gov)

  1. Summary Page: Cover sheet stating the applicant’s name and organization, proposal date, program title, program period, proposed start and end date, and brief purpose of the program.
  2. Proposal (12 pages maximum): The proposal should contain sufficient information that anyone not familiar with it would understand exactly what the applicant wants to do. You may use your own proposal format, but it must include all the items below:
  • Proposal Summary: Short narrative that outlines the proposed program, including program objectives and anticipated impact.
  • Introduction to the Organization or Individual Applying: A description of past and present operations, showing ability to carry out the program, including information on all previous grants from the U.S. Embassy and/or U.S. government agencies.
  • Problem Statement: Clear, concise and well-supported statement of the problem to be addressed and why the proposed program is needed
  • Program Goals and Objectives:  The “goals” describe what the program is intended to achieve.  The “objectives” refer to the intermediate accomplishments on the way to the goals. These should be achievable and measurable.
  • Program Activities: Describe the program activities and how they will help achieve the objectives.
  • Program Methods and Design: A description of how the program is expected to work to solve the stated problem and achieve the goal.  Include a logic model as appropriate.
  • Proposed Program Schedule and Timeline:  The proposed timeline for the program activities.  Include the dates, times, and locations of planned activities and events.
  • Key Personnel: Names, titles, roles and experience/qualifications of key personnel involved in the program.  What proportion of their time will be used in support of this program?
  • Program Partners:  List the names and type of involvement of key partner organizations and sub-awardees.
  • Program Monitoring and Evaluation Plan: This is an important part of successful grants. Throughout the time-frame of the grant, how will the activities be monitored to ensure they are happening in a timely manner, and how will the program be evaluated to make sure it is meeting the goals of the grant?
  • Future Funding or Sustainability Applicant’s plan for continuing the program beyond the grant period, or the availability of other resources, if applicable.
  1. Budget Justification Narrative:   After filling out the SF-424A Budget (above), applicants should fill out the Department of State budget templateto describe each of the budget expenses in detail.  *See section  H. Other Information: Guidelines for Budget Submissionsbelow for further information.*
  2. Attachments
  • 1-page CV or resume of key personnel who are proposed for the program
  • Letters of support from program partners describing the roles and responsibilities of each partner
  • If your organization has a Negotiated Indirect Cost Rate Agreement (NICRA) and includes NICRA charges in the budget, your latest NICRA should be included as a PDF file.
  • Official permission letters, if required for program activities
  1. Unique Entity Identifier and System for Award Management (SAM.gov)

Required Registrations:

  • Any applicant listed on the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS) in the System for Award Management (SAM) is not eligible to apply for an assistance award in accordance with the OMB guidelines at 2 CFR 180 that implement Executive Orders 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189) and 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235), “Debarment and Suspension.” Additionally, no entity listed on the EPLS can participate in any activities under an award.  All applicants are strongly encouraged to review the EPLS in SAM to ensure that no ineligible entity is included.

All organizations applying for grants (except individuals) must obtain these registrations, all of which are free of charge:

  • Unique entity identifier from Dun & Bradstreet (DUNS number)
  • NCAGE/CAGE code
  • www.SAM.gov registration

Step 1: Apply for a DUNS number and an NCAGE number (these can be completed simultaneously)

DUNS application: Organizations must have a Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) number from Dun & Bradstreet. If your organization does not have one already, you may obtain one by calling 1-866-705-5711 or visiting http://fedgov.dnb.com/webform

NCAGE application: Application page here: https://eportal.nspa.nato.int/AC135Public/scage/CageList.aspx

Instructions for the NCAGE application process:


For NCAGE help from within the U.S., call 1-888-227-2423

For NCAGE help from outside the U.S., call 1-269-961-7766

Email NCAGE@dlis.dla.mil for any problems in getting an NCAGE code.

Step 2: After receiving the NCAGE Code, proceed to register in SAM.gov by logging onto: https://www.sam.gov.  SAM registration must be renewed annually.

  1. Submission Dates and Times

The Public Affairs Section will accept applications during the below mentioned dates and will review them according to the following schedule:

  • Applications are due no later than  August 10, 2021, 11:59 p.m. EET (Amman Time).  The received applications will receive responses starting September 20, 2021.
  1. Funding Restrictions

The following costs are not allowed, unless exceptions specified below:

  • Fees and travel cost to attend conferences in the United States, unless the travel is part of a larger-scope program/project and will tie directly to activities in Jordan;
  • Ongoing salary costs (e.g., standing up or maintaining the operation of an organization);
  • Office equipment;
  • Paying to complete activities begun with other funds;
  • Refreshments (exception: expenses for coffee breaks and working lunches which are essential to the realization of the program might be funded);
  • Costs of alcoholic beverages.

Furthermore, award funds cannot be used for construction projects, vehicle purchases, real estate purchases or other similar purposes or for costs which are determined as unallowable in 2 CFR 200.

  1. Other Submission Requirements

All application materials must be submitted by email to AmmanGrants@state.gov

  2. Criteria

Each application will be evaluated and rated on the basis of the evaluation criteria outlined below.  

Quality and Feasibility of the Program Idea:  The program idea is well developed, with detail about how program activities will be carried out. The proposal includes a reasonable implementation timeline.

Organizational Capacity and Record on Previous Grants: The organization has expertise in its stated field and has the internal controls in place to manage federal funds.  This includes a financial management system and a bank account.

Program Planning/Ability to Achieve Objectives: Goals and objectives are clearly stated and program approach is likely to provide maximum impact in achieving the proposed results. Note that all listed objectives must be “S.M.A.R.T.”, i.e., specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-oriented.  Embassy priorities:  Applicant has clearly described how stated goals are related to and support U.S. Embassy Amman’s priority areas or target audiences.

Budget: The budget justification is detailed.  Costs are reasonable in relation to the proposed activities and anticipated results. The budget is realistic, accounting for all necessary expenses to achieve proposed activities.

Media Plan: Applicants must propose an outreach or media promotion plan with the proposal.  If a media plan is not recommended, the applicant should explain why.

Monitoring and Evaluation Plan: Applicant demonstrates that they are able to measure program success against key indicators and provides milestones to indicate progress toward goals outlined in the proposal.  The program includes output and outcome indicators, and shows how and when those will be measured.

Sustainability: Program activities will continue to have positive impact after the end of the program.

Support of Equity and Underserved Communities:  Proposals should clearly demonstrate how the program will support and advance equity and engage underserved communities in program administration, design, and implementation.

  1. Review and Selection Process

A  review committee will evaluate all eligible applications based on the selection criteria outlined above.

  1. Federal Awardee Performance & Integrity Information System (FAPIIS)

For any Federal award under a notice of funding opportunity, if the Federal awarding agency anticipates that the total Federal share will be greater than the simplified acquisition threshold on any Federal award under a notice of funding opportunity may include, over the period of performance (see §200.88 Simplified Acquisition Threshold), this section must also inform applicants:

  1. That the Federal awarding agency, prior to making a Federal award with a total amount of Federal share greater than the simplified acquisition threshold, is required to review and consider any information about the applicant that is in the designated integrity and performance system accessible through SAM (currently FAPIIS) (see 41 U.S.C. 2313);
  2. That an applicant, at its option, may review information in the designated integrity and performance systems accessible through SAM and comment on any information about itself that a Federal awarding agency previously entered and is currently in the designated integrity and performance system accessible through SAM;

iii. That the Federal awarding agency will consider any comments by the applicant, in addition to the other information in the designated integrity and performance system, in making a judgment about the applicant’s integrity, business ethics, and record of performance under Federal awards when completing the review of risk posed by applicants as described in §200.206 Federal awarding agency review of risk posed by applicants.

  1. Anticipated Announcement and Federal Award Dates: September 2021.
  3. Federal Award Notices

The grant award or cooperative agreement will be written, signed, awarded, and administered by the Grants Officer.  The assistance award agreement is the authorizing document and it will be provided to the recipient for review and signature by email. The recipient may only start incurring program expenses beginning on the start date shown on the grant award document signed by the Grants Officer.

If a proposal is selected for funding, the Department of State has no obligation to provide any additional future funding.  Renewal of an award to increase funding or extend the period of performance is at the discretion of the Department of State.

Issuance of this NOFO does not constitute an award commitment on the part of the U.S. government, nor does it commit the U.S. government to pay for costs incurred in the preparation and submission of proposals.  Further, the U.S. government reserves the right to reject any or all proposals received.

Payment Method:

Payments will be made in at least two installments, and as needed, to carry out the program activities.

  1. Administrative and National Policy Requirements

Before submitting an application, applicants should review all the terms and conditions and required certifications which will apply to this award, to ensure that they will be able to comply.

These include:

In accordance with the Office of Management and Budget’s guidance located at 2 CFR part 200, all applicable Federal laws, and relevant Executive guidance, the Department of State will review and consider applications for funding, as applicable to specific programs, pursuant to this notice of funding opportunity in accordance with the following:  NOTE:

  • Guidance for Grants and Agreements in Title 2 of the Code of Federal Regulations (2 CFR), as updated in the Federal Register’s 85 FR 49506 on August 13, 2020, particularly on:
  • Selecting recipients most likely to be successful in delivering results based on the program objectives through an objective process of evaluating Federal award applications (2 CFR part 200.205),
  • Prohibiting the purchase of certain telecommunication and video surveillance services or equipment in alignment with section 889 of the National Defense Authorization Act of 2019 (Pub. L. No. 115—232) (2 CFR part 200.216),
  • Promoting the freedom of speech and religious liberty in alignment with Promoting Free Speech and Religious Liberty (E.O. 13798) and Improving Free Inquiry, Transparency, and Accountability at Colleges and Universities (E.O. 13864) (§§ 200.300, 200.303, 200.339, and 200.341),
  • Providing a preference, to the extent permitted by law, to maximize use of goods, products, and materials produced in the United States (2 CFR part 200.322), and
  • Terminating agreements in whole or in part to the greatest extent authorized by law, if an award no longer effectuates the program goals or agency priorities (2 CFR part 200.340).

(OPTIONAL) In accordance with the Executive Order on Advancing Racial Equity and Underserved Communities, proposals should demonstrate how the program advances equity with respect to race, ethnicity, religion, income, geography, gender identity, sexual orientation, and disability. The proposal should also demonstrate how the program will further engagement in underserved communities and with individuals from underserved communities. Proposals should demonstrate how addressing racial equity and underserved communities will enhance the program’s goals and objectives, as well as the experience of participants.

The support of underserved communities will be part of the review criteria for this opportunity. Therefore, proposals should clearly demonstrate how the program will support and advance equity and engage underserved communities in program administration, design, and implementation.

  1. Reporting

Reporting Requirements: Recipients will be required to submit quarterly financial reports and program reports.  The award document will specify how often these reports must be submitted.


If you have any questions about the grant application process, please contact the PUBLIC AFFAIRS SECTION at: AmmanGrants@state.gov.

Note: We do not provide any pre-consultation for application-related questions that are addressed in the NOFO. Once an application has been submitted, U.S. State Department officials and staff — both in the Department and at Embassies overseas — may not discuss this competition with applicants until the entire proposal review process is completed.


Guidelines for Budget Justification

Personnel and Fringe Benefits: Describe the wages, salaries, and benefits of temporary or permanent staff who will be working directly for the applicant on the program, and the percentage of their time that will be spent on the program.

Travel: Estimate the costs of travel and per diem for this program, for program staff, consultants or speakers, and participants/beneficiaries. If the program involves international travel, include a brief statement of justification for that travel.

Equipment: Describe any machinery, furniture, or other personal property that is required for the program, which has a useful life of more than one year (or a life longer than the duration of the program), and costs at least $5,000 per unit.

Supplies: List and describe all the items and materials, including any computer devices, that are needed for the program. If an item costs more than $5,000 per unit, then put it in the budget under Equipment.

Contractual: Describe goods and services that the applicant plans to acquire through a contract with a vendor.  Also describe any sub-awards to non-profit partners that will help carry out the program activities.

Other Direct Costs: Describe other costs directly associated with the program, which do not fit in the other categories. For example, shipping costs for materials and equipment or applicable taxes. All “Other” or “Miscellaneous” expenses must be itemized and explained.

Indirect Costs:  These are costs that cannot be linked directly to the program activities, such as overhead costs needed to help keep the organization operating.  If your organization has a Negotiated Indirect Cost Rate (NICRA) and includes NICRA charges in the budget, attach a copy of your latest NICRA. Organizations that have never had a NICRA may request indirect costs of 10% of the modified total direct costs as defined in 2 CFR 200.68.

“Cost Sharing” refers to contributions from the organization or other entities other than the U.S. Embassy.   It also includes in-kind contributions such as volunteers’ time and donated venues.

Alcoholic Beverages:  Please note that award funds cannot be used for alcoholic beverages.